FHB Alert Blog

FHB Update from PA, 06/03/19

Infection risk remains high and increasing across the west and northern tier of PA this week. Fields in central to northern PA which are now or will be flowering in the next few days should be sprayed to prevent infection and reduce potential toxin production.

--Alyssa Collins, Extension Field Crops Pathologist, Penn State University

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from OK, 05/31/19

Harvest in southern OK started just this week, so this report will focus primarily on wheat in central, northern, northwestern and the panhandle of Oklahoma. It appears that the wheat crop is well along in its development and needs some dry and warmer weather to finish (as well as to allow harvest!). The primary issues this past week have been deterioration of leaves and head discoloration. The wet environment certainly is contributing to both of these issues. In wheat around Stillwater, heads are being discolored due to black chaff (a bacterial disease) as well as Septoria/Stagonospora that cause leaf spotting as well as head discoloration. There also is a general darkening of heads, called melanism, which results not from a disease but rather is related to genetics and environment. This melanism is difficult to distinguish from the other diseases that are present, especially because this year there seems to be all these happening at once.

Other diseases that are likely to be observed at this point in time are white heads due to foot rots (see wheat disease update on 5-24-2019 available at http://entoplp.okstate.edu/pddl/advisory.htm), Fusarium head blight, and sooty mold. I’ve described and discussed Fusarium head blight in a previous update (5-16-2019 available at http://entoplp.okstate.edu/pddl/advisory.htm). Sooty mold on heads occurs when wheat has turned but cannot be harvested in a timely manner. Wet and humid conditions promote fungal growth on those heads (Figure 4). With time, these fungi can also partly start to grow on wheat seed still in the head, especially at the germ end of the seed. This can lead to a poorer quality of wheat and reduced seed germination

What is described above is confirmed for northwestern OK and the OK panhandle by Josh Bushong (NW OK Area Extn Agron Speclt) who reported seeing overall leaf health as deteriorating across NW OK as well as at field days this past week at Hooker, Balko and Goodwell (all in the OK panhandle). However, the wheat in these parts of Oklahoma should be sufficiently far along (mostly in dough stage) so that the impact on yield should be minimal. Be aware though that head diseases such as Fusarium head scab and sooty mold can affect grain quality and create major problems when the wheat is taken to the elevator.

--Bob Hunger, Extension Plant Pathologist, Oklahoma State University

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from WI, 05/31/19

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Field Crops Pathology crew has spent the last several days scouting winter wheat variety trials in south and south central Wisconsin. Wheat at all locations observed, had flag leaves fully emerged. Weather has been extremely wet and cool across the state. Despite the wet conditions, wheat was generally disease free. We are worried about the risk for Fusarium head blight (FHB) this year given the weather pattern we have been stuck in. Currently the Fusarium head blight Risk Model is showing mostly high levels of risk in the primary wheat growing region of the state. While no heads have emerged, heading will begin in the next 1-2 weeks. Pay close attention to the risk model and your local weather as we approach anthesis (flowering). I anticipate the risk to remain high as periods of rain and humidity persist. Fungicide products of choice to control FHB in Wisconsin include Caramba, Prosaro, and Miravis Ace. Multiple years worth of data in Wisconsin suggest that the best application window for any of these products begins at the start of anthesis until 5-7 days after the start of anthesis. Applying fungicide before anthesis or 7-10 days after anthesis will result in poor performance against vomitoxin accumulation, out of the product. For information pertaining to recent fungicide studies on winter wheat in Wisconsin, click this link and scroll to page 12 of the report: https://badgercropdoc.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/12/2018-Fungic.... Other reports can be found at this link: https://badgercropdoc.com/research-summaries/.

--Damon Smith, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Wisconsin-Madison

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from MD, 05/28/19

Flowering is all finished across all counties of Maryland now, except for a few late planted fields in the northern part of MD that may still be flowering. Currently the risk of FHB is low in these areas. For most parts, wheat is now in the grain filling stage. With the showers that we had at flowering, if you had a susceptible variety planted and missed application of fungicides at the correct time, there are high chances of substantial Fusarium Head Blight incidences. Consequently, tombstones (shriveled scabby kernels) and DON content may be a concern for the growers. To assess the incidence of FHB, you may randomly pick 20-25 heads of wheat per 1-2 acres and count the spikes having bleached spikelets. Fields with high incidence rates should be harvested separately from those with lower incidences. Harvesting from fields with high levels of FHB incidence should be done with higher fan speeds to remove lighter tombstone kernels. The farmers are advised to get the DON content analyzed in the grain before taking it to the market.

--Nidhi Rawat, Small grains Pathologist, University of Maryland

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from MO, 05/24/19

Model predictions for FHB risk have been reduced greatly over the past week. Many wheat varieties have finished or are finishing flowering in the southern part of the state. For the northern and central wheat growing areas of the state, some pockets of moderate to high FHB risk are predicted for moderately susceptible and susceptible varieties if approaching flowering in the coming days. Monitor fields for potential flowering date to determine if or when a fungicide application may be warranted. Fungicides in the triazole class such as Prosaro or Caramba are most effective when applied at 50% flowering, or Feekes 10.5.1 (50% of heads are flowering) but can be applied up to 5 days after flowering and still provide similar control. Strobilurin-containing fungicides are NOT labeled for the control of FHB and may result in increased DON levels in the grain. It is important to always follow harvest restrictions and label instructions when applying fungicides.

--Kaitlyn Bissonnette, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Missouri

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from NY, 05/22/19

Some winter malting barley in New York is beginning to emerge from the boot and this is a critical time to consider a fungicide application. The Fusarium Risk Assessment Map (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/riskTool.html) indicates a moderate to high risk of Fusarium head blight (FHB) for several areas of New York. Maximal suppression of FHB and grain contamination by deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin results when fully emerged heads of winter malting barley are sprayed with full label rates of Caramba or Prosaro fungicides. A heads emerged spray with these triazole fungicides also helps protect upper leaves against fungal leaf blotches, powdery mildew, and rust. Foliar sprays of Caramba or Prosaro up to seven days after head emergence may still result in significant FHB and DON suppression. Unfortunately, Miravis Ace, a new fungicide product with activity against FHB, will not receive NYSDEC label approval in time for use on small grain crops this season. Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain.

Winter wheat is generally a week or more behind in development from winter barley planted on the same fall date. Winter wheat in New York varies from stem elongation to flag leaf visible stages. We should reach the critical fungicide application window for winter wheat over the next two weeks. The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and DON contamination when applied at flowering (emergence of yellow anthers on heads). A flowering application of triazole fungicide should be based on Fusarium head blight (FHB) risk as well as the risks of powdery mildew, rusts, and fungal leaf blotches in the upper canopy based on scouting of individual fields. There is an application window of approximately 7 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected. Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently as your winter wheat crop approaches heading and flowering.

--Gary Bergstrom, Extension Plant Pathologist, Cornell University

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from PA, 05/21/19

With many fields flowering now across the state, infection risk remains high in several areas. Scattered showers and storms over the weekend kept moisture levels up in localized regions. If a spray window presents itself, fungicide is advised.

--Alyssa Collins, Extension Field Crops Pathologist, Penn State University

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from IL, 05/21/19

Wheat is starting to flower as we approach the central portion of the state or will likely start doing so by the end of the week. Recent rains have resulted in elevated risk levels for the wheat that has flowered over the weekend, and forecasted storms moving through Illinois may continue to keep the risk level elevated for those fields that flower over the week. If considering a fungicide application, remember that replicated university research indicates that regardless of product, fungicides applied between flowering (FGS 10.5.1) and roughly 6 days past this point provide the greatest suppression of FHB. Recommended products include Caramba, Miravis Ace, Prosaro, and Proline. As usual, make sure to follow label guidelines for application. Those in the south who flowered roughly 2 weeks ago should start to see symptoms of FHB starting around this time next week if infections occurred.

--Nathan Kleczewski, Research Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, University of Illinois

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from OH, 05/20/19

In northern Ohio, most of the wheat fields are between Feekes growth stages 9 (full flag leaf emergence) and 10 (boot), with the odd early-planted field or field planted with an early- maturing variety beginning to head-out. In southern Ohio, fields are between Feekes 10 and early flowering (Feekes 10.5.1). For those fields of wheat at flowering and fields of barley heading-out today (May 20), the risk for head scab is moderate to low. However, persistent rainfall and warmer temperatures over the next few days will likely cause the risk to increase as more fields reach anthesis later this week and early next week. But remember, scab risk is also linked to crop development; fields of wheat that are not yet at the flowering growth stage and field of barley that at not yet at the heading growth stage are at low risk for head scab. Continue to keep your eyes on crop development, the weather, and the forecasting system, and be prepared to apply a fungicide if warm, wet conditions coincide with flowering and early grain fill. Prosaro, Caramba, and Miravis Ace are the most effective fungicides for head scab and vomitoxin management, and you will have a 4-6-day window from the day the crop reaches the critical growth stage (heading for barley and flowering for wheat) to make an application. Do remember to stay away from the strobilurin fungicides when the risk for scab is high, as this group of fungicides has been linked to higher grain contamination with vomitoxin.

--Pierce Paul, Extension Plant Pathologist, Ohio State University

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from MD, 05/20/19

Wheat in the North-western counties (Frederick, Howard, Carroll, Harford counties) of the state is flowering currently. The FHB risk across the state continues to be high, so if your wheat is flowering, it’s recommended to spray fungicides for managing FHB. The best stage for spraying fungicides is early flowering or within 4-5 days of that. The fungicides effective for FHB are Prosaro/ Caramba/ Miravis-Ace. All of these fungicides are pre-mixed and do not need to be tank mixed with any other product for spraying. Read the label carefully for recommended rates and harvest restriction times. Strobilurin containing fungicides should not be sprayed at this stage. Aerial application at a rate of 5 gallons per acre or ground application at 15 gallons per acre with 300-350 um droplet size is recommended. Spray nozzles should be angled at 30°-45° down from horizontal, toward the grain heads, using forward- and backward mounted nozzles or nozzles with a two directional spray, such as Twinjet nozzles. Wheat in the Eastern shore is already past the stage for both FHB infection and fungicide spray.

--Nidhi Rawat, Small grains Pathologist, University of Maryland

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

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