Targeting cellular structures producing DON to reduce mycotoxin in the grain.

The enzymes for DON biosynthesis are localized to the structures in red, that we call “toxisomes”, which are highly modified portions of the endoplasmic reticulum. Toxisomes are found close to the nucleus of the cell (in green) or stand-alone apart from the nucleus. Left are the structures shown by transmission electron microscopy, and on the right, by fluorescent confocal microscopy with 3-D reconstruction. Publication: Boenisch, M.J., Broz, K.L., Purvine, S.O., Chrisler, W.B., Nicora, C.D., Connolly, L.R., Freitag, M., Baker, S.E., Kistler, H.C. 2017.

Localization the ER and nuclei in vitro.

Figure 5. Localization the ER and nuclei in vitro (a) and in planta (b–d). (a–c) Nuclei and Tri4 visualized with strain H4-GFP/Tri4-RFP in vitro (a, see also Supplementary Fig. S6) and in plant infection structures including lobate appressoria (b) and infection cushions (c and d). (a) Fluorescence of H4-GFP and ER-Tracker are visible in both MM (left column) and TIM (right column). In MM, thin circular structures (red arrowhead) visible by ER-Tracker surround nuclei and thus are perinuclear ER. Reticulate strings (red arrow) not associated with nuclei indicate peripheral ER.

Silica may play a role in pathogen establishment leading to FHB.

Silica-accumulating epidermal cells, including trichomes and silica/cork cell pairs, have an expanded role in barley, serving to trap conidia, provide sites for fungal ingress and initiate resistance responses, suggesting a role for silica in pathogen establishment leading to FHB. Early interactions of Fusarium graminearum with trichomes. (a) Conidia trapped on large prickles at 1 days post-inoculation (dpi). (b) Germinating conidium on a small prickle with infection arm (arrow) and terminal end of hypha (arrowhead) penetrating the base of a neighboring prickle at 3 dpi.

Super resolution microscopy of cytosolic Tri5 and Hms1.

Super resolution microscopy of cytosolic Tri5 and Hms1. A–C 3D SIM z-stack images of dual fluorescently labeled strains (A) Tri5-GFP/Tri4-RFP, (B) Hms1-GFP/Tri4-RFP and (C) Tri5-GFP/Hms1-RFP grown in TRI inducing medium for 48 h. (A) Left panels: Clusters (arrows) of Tri5-GFP (green) surrounding Tri4-RFP labeled OSER (red) and, right panels: Clusters (arrows) of Tri5-GFP (green) partially co-localize (yellow) with Tri4-RFP labeled OSER (red) in a Tri5-GFP/Tri4-RFP strain.


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