Northern SWW Region's blog

FHB Update from MI, 06/11/19

Wheat is beginning to flower in the northcentral and thumb regions of Michigan, though some of the October- seeded crop is still a week away. Growers are encouraged to watch this risk map and consider using a fungicide to protect susceptible varieties. Also consider any leaf diseases that might pose a threat to the flag leaf in the weeks to come. Because flooding is preventing ground application in some areas, aerial application may be a reasonable alternative. Although there are few studies on applying fungicides to wheat by air, it is worth looking at the Extension bulletin called "Aerial Application of Fungicide for the Suppression of Fusarium Head Blight". This piece has a few suggestions for obtaining good coverage of the wheat heads including the use of: 1) a minimum of 5 gallons/acre of water; 2) a “large fine” to “fine medium” spray droplet; 3) a minimum pressure of 30 psi and 4) an application altitude of 8 to 12 feet depending or the aircraft.

--Martin Nagelkirk, Extension Educator, Michigan State University

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from WI, 06/10/19

Most varieties of winter wheat are now at anthesis (flowering) in southern and south-central Wisconsin. Now is the time to manage Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab) and vomitoxin. The Fusarium head blight Risk Model (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu) has tapered off in the last week in terms of predicted risk of FHB. However, there are still areas of moderate to high risk in the primary wheat growing region of the state. Weather conditions are projected to turn excessively wet over the next 3-5 days, thus I predict risk will rise again. FHB was severe in many wheat fields in 2018, and considering the weather this season and reports of FHB to our south, I anticipate 2019 being problematic. Fungicide products of choice to control FHB in Wisconsin include Caramba, Prosaro, and Miravis Ace. Multiple years of data in Wisconsin suggest that the best application window for any of these products begins at the start of anthesis until 5-7 days after the start of anthesis. Applying fungicide before anthesis or more than 7-10 days after anthesis will result in poor performance against vomitoxin accumulation. Information pertaining to recent fungicide studies on winter wheat in Wisconsin, can be found at this link: https://badgercropdoc.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/12/2018-Fungic... and scrolling to page 12. Other reports can be found here: https://badgercropdoc.com/research-summaries/.

--Damon Smith, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Wisconsin-Madison

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from MI, 06/06/19

The weather pattern has been quite favorable for Head scab during the past couple weeks so growers are encouraged to consider fungicide use if conditions warrant. Heads and flowers will likely emerge in southern counties during the next week. We may still be a week or more away in the Thumb and north-central counties. We now have three main products from which to choose: Caramba, Miravis Ace and Prosaro. If one elects to treat:: apply a few days after the first flowers emerge; target the heads by raising the boom to 8 to 12 inches above the heads; use dual nozzles directed both forward and backward ( or, if using single nozzle, at least direct it forward to achieve as much spray deposition on heads as possible); and create a moderately fine spray (if a misty vapor is rolling off the boom, the particles are too small and adjustments should be made).

--Martin Nagelkirk, Extension Educator, Michigan State University

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from NY, 06/04/19

The Fusarium Risk Assessment Map (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/riskTool.html) continues to indicate a moderate to high risk of Fusarium head blight (FHB) for several areas of New York. Much of the state’s winter wheat will initiate flowering this week. The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin contamination when applied at flowering (emergence of yellow anthers on heads). A flowering application of triazole fungicide should be based on Fusarium head blight (FHB) risk as well as the risks of powdery mildew, rusts, and fungal leaf blotches in the upper canopy based on scouting of individual fields. There is an application window of approximately 7 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB and DON suppression can be expected.

All but the latest planted winter barley is beyond the timing for a fungicide application. In barley, maximal suppression of FHB and grain contamination by DON results when fully emerged heads are sprayed with full label rates of Caramba or Prosaro fungicides. Application up to 7 days after full head emergence may still result in significant suppression of FHB and DON.

Attend Cornell’s Small Grain Management Field Day (http://events.cornell.edu/event/2019_small_grains_management_field_day ) on June 6 to learn more about integrated management of FHB and DON and to view the leading varieties of winter wheat, barley, and rye.

--Gary Bergstrom, Extension Plant Pathologist, Cornell University

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from WI, 05/31/19

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Field Crops Pathology crew has spent the last several days scouting winter wheat variety trials in south and south central Wisconsin. Wheat at all locations observed, had flag leaves fully emerged. Weather has been extremely wet and cool across the state. Despite the wet conditions, wheat was generally disease free. We are worried about the risk for Fusarium head blight (FHB) this year given the weather pattern we have been stuck in. Currently the Fusarium head blight Risk Model is showing mostly high levels of risk in the primary wheat growing region of the state. While no heads have emerged, heading will begin in the next 1-2 weeks. Pay close attention to the risk model and your local weather as we approach anthesis (flowering). I anticipate the risk to remain high as periods of rain and humidity persist. Fungicide products of choice to control FHB in Wisconsin include Caramba, Prosaro, and Miravis Ace. Multiple years worth of data in Wisconsin suggest that the best application window for any of these products begins at the start of anthesis until 5-7 days after the start of anthesis. Applying fungicide before anthesis or 7-10 days after anthesis will result in poor performance against vomitoxin accumulation, out of the product. For information pertaining to recent fungicide studies on winter wheat in Wisconsin, click this link and scroll to page 12 of the report: https://badgercropdoc.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/12/2018-Fungic.... Other reports can be found at this link: https://badgercropdoc.com/research-summaries/.

--Damon Smith, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Wisconsin-Madison

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from NY, 05/22/19

Some winter malting barley in New York is beginning to emerge from the boot and this is a critical time to consider a fungicide application. The Fusarium Risk Assessment Map (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/riskTool.html) indicates a moderate to high risk of Fusarium head blight (FHB) for several areas of New York. Maximal suppression of FHB and grain contamination by deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin results when fully emerged heads of winter malting barley are sprayed with full label rates of Caramba or Prosaro fungicides. A heads emerged spray with these triazole fungicides also helps protect upper leaves against fungal leaf blotches, powdery mildew, and rust. Foliar sprays of Caramba or Prosaro up to seven days after head emergence may still result in significant FHB and DON suppression. Unfortunately, Miravis Ace, a new fungicide product with activity against FHB, will not receive NYSDEC label approval in time for use on small grain crops this season. Fungicide products containing strobilurins should not be applied to headed wheat or barley as they may result in increased levels of DON in grain.

Winter wheat is generally a week or more behind in development from winter barley planted on the same fall date. Winter wheat in New York varies from stem elongation to flag leaf visible stages. We should reach the critical fungicide application window for winter wheat over the next two weeks. The triazole products Caramba and Prosaro are the most effective fungicides for suppression of FHB and DON contamination when applied at flowering (emergence of yellow anthers on heads). A flowering application of triazole fungicide should be based on Fusarium head blight (FHB) risk as well as the risks of powdery mildew, rusts, and fungal leaf blotches in the upper canopy based on scouting of individual fields. There is an application window of approximately 7 days from the beginning of flowering in which reasonable FHB suppression can be expected. Check the Fusarium Risk Assessment Tool (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) and your local weather forecast frequently as your winter wheat crop approaches heading and flowering.

--Gary Bergstrom, Extension Plant Pathologist, Cornell University

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from WI, 06/06/18

The Wisconsin Field Crops Pathology Team has been busy scouting and rating diseases of winter wheat this past week across the major wheat growing region of the state. To be honest, it has been pretty boring for our group. We have seen virtually no disease in uniform variety trials or in production fields. This is good news for farmers, fo sure.

We have not yet confirmed any stripe rust infections in the state of Wisconsin, this season. Reports from farmers and consultants are also consistent with our observations. This is a considerable change from last season, when we found our first stripe rust pustules at the end of March. This early epidemic in 2017 resulted in some considerable yield loss from stripe rust on winter wheat. Definitely not the case this season. We have also seen extremely low levels of Septoria leaf blotch in the lower portions of the canopy on some varieties. Cool dry weather is preventing this disease from really moving up the canopy. No other foliar diseases have been confirmed on winter wheat this season.

As for the Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab) situation, risk as calculated by the Fusarium Risk Tool, has dissipated over the past week. Two weeks ago, risk of FHB had been estimated to be high on susceptible cultivars. However, cool dry weather has driven the risk to low levels across much of the major wheat production area of Wisconsin. Risk is high still along the Lake Michigan shore and up into Door County. Also elevated and high risk are estimated in Northwest Wisconsin on susceptible cultivars. The situation should be monitored closely in these areas on any crop heading into anthesis. Most of the wheat we have looked at across the southern, south-central, and north-eastern wheat production area of the state is through anthesis or will be by the end of the week. The FHB risk is forecast to be low through this period, in these areas. We will begin scouting for FHB damage in the next week or so, but we anticipate FHB to be mostly low in many areas, with some isolated pockets of higher levels.

It is important to continue scouting over the next couple of weeks. We are transitioning away form making fungicide spray decisions, but it is important to determine the level of FHB present in a particular field, so that proper harvest preparations can be made. We will continue to update you on what we find over the next couple of weeks. However, this is the lowest level of disease on winter wheat I have seen since I have been in Wisconsin. Scout, Scout, Scout!

--Damon Smith, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Wisconsin-Madison

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from WI, 05/30/18

Warm weather last week, which continued into this week, has pushed the winter wheat crop in Wisconsin toward heading. Most varieties planted in the southern or south-central region of Wisconsin are heading, with full emergence and anthesis (flowering) beginning by the end of the week. We suspect that winter wheat in the northern and northeastern portions of the Wisconsin wheat belt to not be far behind.

Now is the time to consider your Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab) management strategy. Weather late last week had driven the FHB risk on the Fusarium Head Blight Prediction Center to a high level for susceptible varieties. Extremely hot and dry weather has forced the risk back to "low" today. However, 72 hour forecasts show risk increasing to medium in much of the wheat belt with high risk in isolated pockets on susceptible varieties (see figure). Rain today, with continued humidity and temperatures in the 80s F for the rest of the week, will keep risk elevated. Areas near the Lake Michigan shore will likely be at high risk.

A fungicide may be needed especially on susceptible cultivars to control FHB and reduce DON (vomitoxin) contamination. The fungicides Prosaro or Caramba have both performed well on FHB in Wisconsin. Timing of application of these products is critical. I would urge you to wait until anthesis has begun in your field before applying. We have observed poor control where application of these effective fungicides were made before anthesis. In fact, we have observed improved control of FHB and lower levels of DON in finished grain where fungicide application was delayed 4-5 days after the beginning of anthesis, compared to applications at the start of anthesis. Also, remember that application of fungicides should be made no later than 6-7 days after the start of anthesis. After this time, fungicide efficacy on FHB and DON control is much reduced.

Get out there and SCOUT, SCOUT, SCOUT and monitor the FHB Prediction Center!

--Damon Smith, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Wisconsin-Madison

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from MI, 05/30/18

Wheat is at the stage where growers should consider applying a fungicide where conditions are conducive to Fusarium head blight or leaf diseases. Currently, wheat is heading in many southern Michigan fields and, within a week, fields will likely head in the northcentral parts of the state. Once wheat is headed (the base of the head has cleared the base of the flag leaf), it usually takes 2 or 3 days for the first flowers (anthers) to appear. Fungicide applications for head scab should be made 2 to 5 days later. At this point, most or nearly all the heads will have at least one or more anthers. The recommended fungicides include Prosaro and Caramba. Risk has dissipated significantly over the past few days according to this forecast model. However, continue to check this site as there is marked differences in weather patterns across the state and rainfall is predicted for the next couple of days. Suppressing leaf diseases, in addition to head scab, has been a significant financial justification for the use of fungicides at this timing. Although these diseases have been slow to develop this season, wheat should be scouted regularly as foliar diseases can develop rapidly under favorable conditions.

--Martin Nagelkirk, Extension Educator, Michigan State University

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

FHB Update from WI, 05/24/18

The heavy moisture we have received over the last week, combined with high temperatures in the low-to-mid 80s F this week have pushed winter wheat growth stages. We have seen seen rapid stem elongation with flag leaves emerging in some fields in the southern and south central regions of Wisconsin. We continue to find wheat with little foliar disease. However, we are entering a critical time to make our first important fungicide decision related to protecting emerging flag leaves from foliar disease. Continue to scout. Weather has been conducive for some foliar diseases. However, wheat continues to remain "clean" then hold your fungicide application until anthesis.

Given the heat this week, I suspect that heads will be emerging for some varieties in the southern region over the next week or so, with anthesis to closely follow. The decision to apply fungicide will be critical at this time. Considering the wet weather and warm temperatures the "pump is primed" for Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab). The Fusarium Head Blight Prediction Center currently has the FHB risk at medium to high in the south, south-central and eastern portions of the wheat belt. This situation needs to be monitored closely over the next couple of weeks as fields enter the anthesis growth stage. The weather outlook appears to be very humid, wet, and warm, which will only increase the risk of FHB.

A fungicide may be needed especially on susceptible cultivars to control FHB and reduce DON (vomitoxin) contamination. The fungicides Prosaro or Caramba have both performed well on FHB in Wisconsin. Timing of application of these products is critical. I would urge you to wait until anthesis has begun in your field before applying. We have observed poor control where application of these effective fungicides were made before anthesis. In fact, we have observed improved control of FHB and lower levels of DON in finished grain where fungicide application was delayed 4-5 days after the beginning of anthesis, compared to applications at the start of anthesis. Also, remember that application of fungicides should be made no later than 6-7 days after the start of anthesis. After this time, fungicide efficacy on FHB and DON control is much reduced.

Get out there and SCOUT, SCOUT, SCOUT and monitor the FHB Prediction Center!

--Damon Smith, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Wisconsin-Madison

For more details, go to the FHB Risk assessment tool at http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu

For the latest news and updates from the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative, go to https://www.scabusa.org

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